Floriculture could be considered as the most colorful sector of horticulture, which includes
flowers, foliage, potted plants, ornamentals
and greens. India is the second largest growers of flowers after China. With urbanization and increase in disposable income level, the demand for floriculture
products has increased significantly. As a result, there has been an increasing demand for cut flowers like rose, gladiolus, carnation, gerbera, orchid, carnation,
gerbera, lilium, etc. There is a equally good demand for the traditional flowers like jasmine, marigold,
chrysanthemum, tuberose, etc. This has led to the transformation of floriculture sector from household
activity to a commercial venture.
It is one of the fastest growing segments of horticulture, having potential for providing enhanced returns to the farmers
besides providing employment opportunities to the unemployed youth. Therefore, the Government of India has been paying close attention for development
of floriculture in the country.
Developmental Initiatives by Government
Developmental initiatives were taken up by the Government of India during VIII plan period by launching a central sector scheme on development of horticulture with an outlay of Rs. 14.3 crores.
The scheme continued during the IX plan and was subsequently subsumed under Micro Management Scheme with effect from 2001-02. This approach was modified during 2001-02 (end of IX plan) with the launch of the Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in the North Eastern States (TMNE) which was further extended to the Himalayan States of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uuttarakhand in 2003-04.
The Technology Mission addressed each of the segments of horticulture development, covering research, production & productivity improvement, post harvest management (PHM), marketing and processing through four Mini Missions (MM) i.e. MM - I for Research, MM - II for Production, MM - III for PHM & Marketing and MM - IV for processing.
The scheme aimed at the holistic development of all the horticulture crops in all the districts of the North Eastern and Himalayan States. The scheme has now been renamed as Horticulture Mission for North Eastern and Himalayan States (HMNEH) with effect from April, 2010. Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan States has emerged as the most significant contributing factor to bring about a revolutionary change in the entire horticultural
scenario of the regions and it has become a people's programme now. Area expansion under open field conditions, protected cultivation,
setting up of model floriculture centres and training of farmers were some of the activities taken up under the scheme. The Government of India identified the floriculture sector as one of the growth engines to fuel the economic growth with foreign exchange.
Approach & Pattern of Assistance
The thrust of the HMNEH is an area based regionally differentiated cluster based development of horticultural crops having comparative advantage. An end to end approach, covering production, post harvest management, primary processing and marketing, is adopted to ensure appropriate
returns to growers/producers. The HMNEH is presently being implemented in all 133 districts of 11 States.
Area expansion under different types of flowers such as cut flowers, bulbous flowers
and loose flowers is being promoted under the mission. Summary details of assistance
being provided for the purpose are given in Table-1 and 2.
Impact of HMNEH on floriculture
The North Eastern and Himalayan States are blessed by nature with tremendous biodiversity and extremely congenial climate for various kinds of horticultural activities. Floriculture in particular holds high promise for improving the economy of these regions. Floriculture as a whole is a nascent industry in the country. The leading States in non-traditional floriculture are Maharashtra and Karnataka. However, of late, it is observed that the booming floriculture
industry in these parts of the country is hit by real estate boom resulting in stagnant growth. Under such circumstances, the need arises to promote alternative areas in order to carry forward the floriculture development process in the country.
Because of the congenial climate, unexplored potential, availability
of sufficient land and other inherent strengths the North Eastern region of the country and other Himalayan States provide a suitable alternative. The region being totally free from any external forces holds great promise for commercial floriculture. The Horticulture
Mission launched by the Government of India has played the most crucial role in augmenting floriculture development in these regions. The most remarkable impact has been brought about by technology interventions coupled with a complete package of inputs. Inputs like quality planting material, greenhouse, drip irrigation
system, feeds and fertilizers have a direct and positive impact on the overall development of floriculture.
The Mission has been able to spearhead floriculture development
in the right perspective. Convergence of ongoing programmes and schemes leading to holistic impact has been achieved to a great extent. The regions have been able to take advantage of various provisions
under APEDA and NHB schemes to dovetail resources for holistic development. Various issues related to product diversification,
marketing and forward linkages have been addressed through establishment of different infrastructures.
The impressive achievements in floriculture sector through HMNEH
in North East and Himalayan States
Assam Floriculture in Assam is traditional but it was away from commercial
state. The horticulture in Assam has successfully infused the commercial concept amongst enthusiastic farmers groups, SHGs, more particularly women SHGs. Earlier efforts were confined to marigold, gladioli, tuberose and gerbera. During last two years, two new crops were introduced to cultivators under greenhouse condition.
These crops were dendrobium and anthurium. The commercial
cultivation of dendrobium and anthurium is now taken up in upper
Assam especially in Jorhat, Navgaon, Morigaon, Kokrajhar, Kamrup,
etc districts of Assam. The flowers are grown by farmers under buyback
arrangement. The 'Mainow Orchid Growers Society in Kokrajhar
district is the first orchid project in the State. This project has
become a site of frequent visit by all section of the society and is
being praised by one and all. This society could earn Rs. 1.20 lakh
in just 10 months by selling cut flowers. This project is being expanded
further with involvement of more groups. Another SHG in
Kamrup district could earn Rs. 0.24 lakh during June, 2008 from anthurium.
So far, 31 orchid projects covering approximately an area of 20000 sqm and 29 of anthurium projects covering approximately
an area 24000 sqm under greenhouse infrastructure since 2005-06.
Moreover, commercial hybrid variety of gerbera, tuberose and bird
of paradise were also taken up in Kamrup district covering an area
of around 200 ha during 2008-09 and 2009-10.
Divergent climatic zones of Arunachal Pradesh are favourable
for almost all the flowers grown in India, but the State Department
of Horticulture is emphasizing on cultivation of top ten cut flowers
like gerbera, anthurium, rose and carnations, etc. Commercial
cultivation of these flowers has been successful, opening a huge
prospect for State to emerge as a major producer of fresh cut flowers.
At present, area covered under floriculture is about 1220 ha,
producing about 286 million stems. Though, a late entrant in Nation's
floriculture spectrum, Arunachal Pradesh has managed to pick
up rapidly with other flower growing states. More of such model floriculture
gardens will be coming up next year. In addition to these,
the popularity of flowering potted plants and ornamental foliage are
Most of the flowers produced are sent to Guwahati (Assam) by
road, from where they are further transported to different parts of India
for sale, a part of which is exported to several destinations. With
streamlining of transport system (Rail, Road, Air) in the State, new
avenue for improved marketing will emerge for such highly perishable
produce. Arunachal Pradesh with its high quality produce and
low cost of production would make its produce most competitive in
any market within and outside the country.
Commercial floriculture started picking up in the State during
VIII Five Year Plan Period. Initially, the flower production was confined
to Solan & Kangra Districts, where growers would undertake
cultivation of gladiolus, carnation and some traditional flowers.
Thereafter, exotic flowers like gladiolus, carnation, lilium, tulip, iris,
chrysanthemum, calla lily, etc. were introduced in the state from
countries advanced in floriculture. As a result, area under commercial
floriculture steadily increased from 30 ha in 1993-94 to 682 ha
in 2009-10. At present, area under protected cultivation stands at 74
ha wherein 1340 farmers are involved.
The major flower growing districts in the State are Sirmaur,
Kangra, Mandi, Chamba, Shimla, Solan, Bilaspur and Kullu, where
mainly gladiolus, marigold, chrysanthemums, rose, carnation, lilium,
etc are cultivated. However, the State considers alstroemeria,
limonium, zantedeschia, iris, strelitzia, tulips, gerbera, orchid as potential
It is estimated that floriculture crops worth Rs. 41.82 crores were
grown during 2009-2010, benefiting about 2800 farmers.
Jammu & Kashmir
The systematic interventions of State government through various
schemes coupled with zeal of farmers have laid a roadmap for
development of floriculture in the State. With the financial assistance
available under various schemes, the State has made sufficient
progress in the cultivation of various kinds and varieties of cut flowers
like carnation, lillium, gladiolus, marigold, tulip, etc through the involvement of farmers, particularly un-employed youth. In addition,
seed production under open field/ green house conditions has
also been initiated by the State.
Under HMNEH/RKVY, the Department has established Walk-in-
Cold Chambers and it is in the process of procuring new Refrigerated
Vans. These facilities will be provided on no-loss-no-gain basis
to the commercial flower growers, so that they are in a position to
temporarily store their produce like cut flowers, ornamental plants,
seedlings, bulbs etc. both for marketing and refrigerated transportation
from production site to nearest market.
There is a vast scope for floriculture development in the State
as it is evident from the fact that during 1996 an area of 80 ha was
under flower cultivation, which reached to 250 ha during 2009-10
with an annual revenue generation of more than about Rs.800 lakh.
The trend in growth of floriculture sector in the State is also given
are blessed by
various kinds of
high promise for
economy of these
Before introduction of Horticulture Mission in
the State, the floriculture was merely confined to
small patches. It is now recognized as one of the
main thrust areas for trade outside the State.
Commercial cultivation of flowers like anthurium,
gerbera, roses and dendrobium was started from
2007-08. The farmers are now earning more than
three lakhs per year by selling their cut flowers of
roses, anthurium and dendrobium Orchids, etc.
The floriculture in Manipur is characterized by
cultivation of traditional flowers (loose flowers) and
cut flowers under both open field conditions and protected
environment conditions. The State has a great
potential in dry flower sector also. It is contributing
substantially to the overall trade of flowers. The other
segments like fillers, potted plants, seeds and planting
material, turf grass and value added products also
contribute a share to the overall growth of floriculture
sector in Manipur. The cultivation of traditional
loose flowers by small and marginal farmers to meet
the demand for worship, garland making and decorations
is recognized as the backbone of floriculture in
Of the total flower produced in the State, about
86% flowers are grown under open condition and
the remaining 14% under protected conditions. The
orchids, believed to have evolved in the state, is an
important feature of the vegetation here. Out of 1300
species of orchids (belonging to 158 genera in India),
about 700 species are concentrated in the Northeast
region and out of which, 251 species are found in
the State of Manipur alone. These species are dendrobium,
schoenorchis manipurensis, asconcentrum
ampullaceum var. auranticum, A.ampullaceum,
aerides fieldingii var.williamsii, A.odorata var.alba,
cymbadium tigrinum, vanda, etc.
Among the orchids found in Manipur, Dendrobium
species has proved promising. Accordingly,
this orchid has been prioritized by the State for large
scale cultivation through four mega projects at different
locations (i) Khonghampat of Imphal West District,
(ii) Hengbung of Senapati District, (iii) East Garden
and (iv) Megha Floritech of Imphal East District.
These centres have already started production of cut
flowers which are being exported to markets outside
the State by tying up with some renowned companies.
The Flower Growers Association of Manipur
is sending its produce of dendrobium, anthurium,
carnation, gerbera, alstroemeria, leather leaf Ferns
to different Metros of Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, etc
through the Bangalore based Florence Flora under
buy-back arrangements. Loose mariglod flowers
are being sent to Kolkata and Guwahati markets in
Commercial floriculture is a relatively recent
concept in Meghalaya. Despite the fact that there is
a deep rooted cultural love of flowers amongst the
people of the state, the cultivation has been mainly
restricted to the growing of potted, garden and
house plants for aesthetic value amongst the general
The launching of the Horticulture Mission
changed all that with the introduction of cut flower
cultivation of anthurium, roses, carnations, liliums
and orchids. A new awareness was created amongst
the farming community that flowers are not only a
feast for the eyes but could also be a potential source
of income. The introduction of polyhouses further
boosted the adoption of cut flower cultivation across
the state. This is amply demonstrated by the fact that
the area under protected floriculture (roses, anthurium,
gerbera, carnations, liliums, etc) went up from
almost negligible, in the pre mission days, to 35 ha
during 2009-10 with an annual production of 62
lakh cut flowers. In the process new flower crops
of heliconia, BOP, chrysanthemum, zanthedescia,
iris, gladioli and foliage plants of leather leaf fern,
Xanadu, Golden Rod, Limonium, have been introduced
and are slowly gaining acceptance amongst
the farming community.
The adoption of the Hub and Spoke model of
horticulture development with a distinct horti-business
and marketing model as initiated by the hortihubs
of Samgong in East Garo Hills and Dewlieh in
Ri Bhoi District, have been hugely instrumental in the success of floriculture in the state with
linkages between the producers and markets
as well as the PHM infrastructure being
facilitated and catered to by the horti-hubs.
Such has been the impact that Meghalaya
now ranks as one of the leading states in
the North East for the production and supply
of cut flowers to mainland consumer
markets. These successes have led to the
establishment of seven additional hubs in
other districts of the state with work commencing
on another additional seven new
hubs in Mynkre, Mairang, Sarengma, Zigzak
Dawagre, Phodkylla and Baljek.
Department of Horticulture introduced
cultivation of anthurium flowers since Nov
2002 under Technology Mission. Initially,
24 potential growers had been identified
for taking up anthurium cultivation by providing
quality Planting Materials imported
from the Netherlands, Shadenets, Cocopeet,
Water tanks, Sprinkler Irrigation etc.
The first consignment was flagged - off
during October, 2003. This programme has
been worth mentioning as most of the selected
growers are women. The income of
growers varies from Rs 6000 - Rs 20,000.
So far, 20 lakhs of cut flowers have been
sold outside the State.
At present, more than 70 different varieties
of anthurium have been introduced in
the State. As of now, more than 400 farmers
are cultivating anthurium within the
State. The Mizoram Anthurium Growers
Society participated at State, National and
International level exhibitions, in which
the cut flowers displayed were admired
by the visitors and even awarded various
Cultivation of rose (Dutch Rose) on commercial
Scale under Hi-Tech Green House
has been introduced since 2006 covering
an area of 28,500 sqm. The first cut flowers
of rose was harvested in April, 2007
and continued till date. Presently, the cut
flowers harvest is over 10,000/day. These
cut flowers have been marketed at various
cities and locations within the country. So
far, 10 different varieties of rose are being
grown in Mizoram which are world class
flowers. Over a short span of time, the production
is expected to increase manifolds
to meet its ever increasing demand owing
to its superior quality. As of now, there are
37. Hi-Tech Green House Rose cultivators
within the State.
Floriculture has been one of the most
important activities of the State due to the
inherent love of flowers especially amongst
the ladies since time immemorial. Since
2004-05, due to the tremendous push from
the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation
(Government of India) under its
Horticulture Mission. Floriculture is now one of the most flourishing industries of the
State bringing a revenue of about Rs. 1.50
to Rs. 2.00 crores annually, and most importantly,
offering employment opportunities
to thousands of youth and SHGs.
One of the important crops that are being
grown under Hi-Tech Greenhouses and
Zantedeschia. So far, about 42 ha of area
has been developed both under hi-tech and
low cost greenhouses. Also, about 450 ha
is being cultivated under open field conditions
for heliconia, bird of paradise and dry
It is estimated that about 70,000 stems
of cut flowers are being produced in a
week in the State. Apart from offering greenhouses and quality planting materials
to the entrepreneurs, the State Department
of Horticulture also provides buy-back arrangements,
technical support, cold room
Thus, the introduction of Horticulture
Mission has been a big blessing for the
State of Nagaland and most importantly for
the flower growers of the State.
The traditional strengths of Sikkim is the
cultivation of orchids and anthurium. However,
several other flowers like rose, alstroemeria,
zantedeschia, carnations, gerbera,
BoP, Heliconia, spray chrysanthemums
have also been introduced in the State.
Cymbidium is another important flower
of the State. To promote this, a Cymbidium
Development Centre has been established
to promote various activities like varietal
screening, technology upgradation, training
and skill development of farmers. Four
laboratories under private sector and two
under public sector have been set up for
production of cymbidium clones. To further
promotion production of Cymbidium,
East Sikkim has been
Sikkim has successfully
a number of Rose Villages,
a concept which
is unique to this region.
As per this concept, the
whole lot of farmers in
a village are encouraged
to adopt rose cultivation
lines, using scientific
inputs provided by the
State Department of
Horticulture under the
Another activity which
is worth mentioning is establishment of a
joint venture between the State Department
of Horticulture and Florance Flora of
Bangalore for production and export of anthurium
cut flowers. This is one of the first
of its kind in the North East.
As a result of these interventions, the
economy of the farmers has improved.
Cymbidium farmers are now earning an
average annual income of Rs. 35,000 - Rs.
40,000/- from a unit of 500 plants. Likewise,
each rose grower earns Rs. 80,000-
Rs. 1,00,000/- from an area of 500 sqm.
Gerbera farmer's have recorded an earnings
of Rs. 25,000 - Rs. 30,000/- from an area of
134 sqm. The average income per unit area
perhaps is the highest in floriculture, ranging
from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200 per sqm.
There has been significant progress in
flower cultivation in the state after launching
of central sector Technology Mission,
especially amongst the unemployed youth.
Many exotic flowers like anthurium, orchids
(dendrobium), gerbera and lilium
were introduced in sub-divisions adjoining
the state capital of Agartala whose area have
been increasing with time because of easy
availability of market within and outside
the state. Commercial cultivation of other
open field flowers like, tuberose, gladiolus
and marigold have also got a special fillip.
Till 2009-10, about 108 ha (including 4.6
ha under protected and 103.40 ha under
open field cultivation) has been brought
under this sector.
Floriculture is a rapidly growing sector
in Uttarakhand. On account of its diverse
agro-climatic conditions, Government of
India and State governments' incentives,
general entrepreneurial environment and
proximity to Delhi market, floriculture
has emerged as a high income enterprise in the state. At present, the total turnover
of cut flowers from Uttarakhand amount
to Rs 55.00 crore. Padampuri (Nainital),
parts of Dehradun, Udhamsingh Nagar,
Ramnagar (Nainital) and Haridwar are now
recognized as floriculture clusters. The important
flower crops are Gerbera, Lilium,
Rose, Gladiolus, Carnation, etc. Lately,
Marigold is also being cultivated in hilly areas
of Rudrapryag, etc. falling in the route
of Char Dham Yatra. The total area under
flowers is approximately 1000 ha including
protected cultivation. The trend of growth
of floriculture in the state is as under:
Floriculture exports from India
India is endowed with proximity to market
in Japan, Russia, South-East Asia and
Middle-East Countries. The Government allows subsidy on airfreight for export of cut
flowers and tissue-cultured plants. Freight
rate is subsidized for export to Europe and
West Asia, South East Asia. Import duties
have been reduced on cut flowers, flower
seeds, tissue-cultured plants.
The transformation of Indian floriculture
from pushcart transportation to charted
flight transportation is phenomenal. Floricultural
exports from India comprises of
fresh cut flowers (to Europe, Japan, Australia,
Middle East & USA), loose flowers (for
expatriate Indians in the Gulf), cut foliage
(to Europe), dry flowers (to USA, Europe,
Japan, Australia, Far East & Russia) potted
plants (Limited to very few countries). Out
of these components dry flowers contribute
a major share to the total export.
The floriculture exports registered a
phenomenal growth during the last decade.
The floriculture exports, which stood at Rs.
63 crores during 1996-97 almost, tripled to
Rs. 211 crores during 2004-05.